Understanding the sources is an important way of how to reference in an essay. This implies that the correct referencing standards must be used; otherwise, the essay might fail to meet the expected standards leading to the failure of the student. Referencing an essay can be achieved through the use of different formats and referencing styles.
The most common essay reference styles used by students at colleges and universities in Aussie include the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychology Association (APA), Harvard, and Chicago. In this blog, however, emphasis will be only on APA essay referencing, MLA essay referencing, and website essay referencing. Each of these essay writing styles have distinct referencing rules that the student must follow to ensure that the referencing rules and expected academic standards are adhered to as required.
To achieve this, it is important to know when to reference in an essay and to know the correct or most suitable reference and essay needs. The materials referenced in an essay can be different. Some include books, some peer-reviewed articles, and journals while some could even be websites. All these resources have different rules that must be followed in order to be correctly documented within an essay. The following paragraphs give some of the basic rules to follow when one wants to reference an essay using each of the essay writing formats mentioned above.
In the American Psychology Association (APA) style, there are two key components that the essay writer must ensure are met. These include the in-text citations and the reference list. There is a specific conventional way in which these should be done independently, especially in the Skippy context. For example, in the case of in-text citations (Citations that appear within the text), the writer must include the name or names of the author and the year of publication.
These must be put in round brackets whenever a fact or a statistic is mentioned or quoted. In the case of referencing a direct quote, it is important to include the specific page number or the paragraph from which the quote is obtained. This must also be enclosed in a round bracket.
Once the in-text citations are done, all of them should be listed in a reference list that appears at the end of the document. Basically, this is a list that contains an entry of all the information about the materials that the writer has used in the essay and which can be used by the reader to follow-up on the sources. There is a conventional way in which the reference list should be made especially with the case of APA referencing style.
Some of the key points to note when giving an APA reference list include the following:
- All the references should be on their own page with the title “References” centered.
- All the sources used in the essay should be included in the reference list, regardless of the format. These could be books, journals, online sources or periodicals. It is important to organize these sources in alphabetical order for easy identification and access when need be.
- The entries should all be alphabetized by the use of the surname of authors.
- All works with no author should be listed under the first significant word of the title.
- The second and the subsequent lines should be indented for each entry at an average spacing of 5-7 spaces.
- All the spaces between the references should be double, and all the references should end with a fullstop except under circumstances where the reference used ends with a specified URL or a doi.
There are specific differences that the writer must consider when referencing a journal article and a book. There are small differences in the information required that the writer must include. For example, the basic reference list for a journal article entry must include the name(s) of author(s), the year of publication of the article, the title of the article, the journal title which must be italicized, the volume of the journal which must be italicized, the issue of the journal, the Document Object Identifier (DOI) and the first line of very citation must be first-adjusted.
It is also important for aussie writers to note that the subsequent line should be at a space of between 5-7 spaces. The information included for a journal is more detailed and shows a slight difference when compared with that which must be included in the case of a book. For example, when referencing a book in an essay, it is important to include the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the book, the edition, the place of publication, the name of the publisher and the first line should be left-adjusted for every citation. The author’s name is always a surname that must always be followed with the first initials.
In the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, the writer should use the in-text citations and the work cited instead of the reference list, as is the case in APA. The in-text citation should be a relevant source that is provided in the parenthesis followed by the specific page number from which the information is obtained from the source. When citing the source, it is important to consider whether the work is done by a single author or by several authors. W
hen multiple works are done by a single author; for example, it is important to include a shortened title for the work followed by the title of the book in italics. However, if the writer is citing a work that has been done by several authors, it is important to list all the authors’ last names followed by page number and then a parenthesis. There are many ways to include in-text citations in an MLA format.
But the most common methods include the author-page style where the last name and the page number is included and the in-text citations with single or multiple authors. The student or the writer must, therefore, be very keen to ensure that they adhere to the correct essay formatting rules otherwise their papers will not be standard, and they can lose huge marks.
In order to understand how to reference in an essay example, the following illustrations will be made, and these can be used by the students in referencing their essays to get the best essay reference example.
Here, it is important to include the author or authors and the year of publication in the case of a book.
Example: (Smith &Bruce, 2019)
When referencing a direct quote, the writer must include the specific page number from where the quote has been removed as demonstrated below:
Example: (Smith & Bruce, 2019, pp.13-18).
This is illustrated in the diagram below:
Finally, when referencing a journal article using APA style, additional information must be included, such as the year of publication, the title of the book in italic, the edition, the place of publication and the publisher. It is also important to have the first line of each citation left-adjusted, and this is something that cannot be forgotten in APA formatting.
Example: Arnott, G.D. (2019). The disability support worker (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning.
This is illustrated as follows:
As discussed earlier, the standard in-text referencing style for MLA style takes the format of the author name -page style. However, different styles can be applied depending on the number of authors and the volume of the material used whether it is a book, a journal or a website. The following are some examples that demonstrate how MLA in-text referencing can be applied in an essay.
Example: (Smith 113)
In case the author is unknown, it is important to include the abbreviated title or the article in the parenthetical section.
Example: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
Other than using books, journal articles, or any other printed source, it is also important to learn how to understand that credible website sources can also carry important information and learning how to reference sources in an essay is therefore very important. One of the simplest ways to achieve that is to use an essay reference generator that is available in the Microsoft office.
There are also other rules and guidelines that the writer must be able to understand in order to know how to reference a website in an essay and ensure that the websites they use contain verified and credible information that cannot mislead the readers. There are specific rules that must be followed when using both MLA and APA essay formatting styles. The author must all the times ensure that these rules are not deviated from. In case the writer does not understand anything properly on how to reference websites in an essay, there are also available websites that provide such guidance like Purdue OWL, and the writer can get useful information from them.
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